This act augmented the Native Land Act of 1913 through the establishment of so-called "homelands" or "reserves". [108] The conflict ended almost as soon as it began with a decisive Boer victory at Battle of Majuba Hill (27 February 1881). [190] From the 1960s onwards until 1989, MK carried out numerous acts of sabotage and attacks on military and police personnel. It replaced the flag that had been used since 1928, and was chosen to represent multiculturalism and ethnic diversity in the country's new, post-apartheid democratic society. [97][98], Although many tales abound, there is no conclusive evidence as to who first discovered gold or the manner in which it was originally discovered in the late 19th century on the Witwatersrand (meaning White Waters Ridge) of the Transvaal. The country became a fully sovereign nation state within the British Empire, in 1934 following enactment of the Status of the Union Act. South Africa: Colonization The colonization of South Africa took place in the early 1800s by the British. "B&J": Jacob Bercovitch and Richard Jackson. As Cape Prime Minister, Rhodes curtailed the multi-racial franchise, and his expansionist policies set the stage for the Second Boer War. However, if you'd asked somebody this question in the 17th century, they would have placed the Netherlands at the top of the list. [citation needed]Smuts was invited to the Imperial War Cabinet in 1939 as the most senior South African in favour of war. [50], The South African Republic (Dutch: Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek or ZAR, not to be confused with the much later Republic of South Africa), is often referred to as The Transvaal and sometimes as the Republic of Transvaal. [3] European exploration of the African coast began in the 13th century when Portugal committed itself to discover an alternative route to the silk road that would lead to China. [218][219][220] Notable corruption related scandals during this period included incidents of widespread state capture[221] often involving allegations against the Gupta family. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. The republic regained its independence as the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek ("South African Republic"), or ZAR. From 26–29 April 1994, the South African population voted in the first universal suffrage general elections. The apartheid-era South African military and political intelligence services, for their part, worked closely with American, British and West German secret services throughout the Cold War. Like the Dutch before them, the British initially had little interest in the Cape Colony, other than as a strategically located port. Anyone can earn Dutch residents of Cape Town led expeditions of settlers known as the Voortrekkers to western Africa in the 19th century. APLA denied the attacks were racist in character, claiming that the attacks were directed against the apartheid government as all whites, according to the PAC, were complicit in the policy of apartheid. Why did Europeans want to colonize Africa. Until that point, President Paul Kruger's government had excluded all foreigners from the franchise. The monarchy came to an end on 31 May 1961, replaced by a republic as the consequence of a 1960 referendum, which legitimised the country becoming the Republic of South Africa. The post-apartheid period has been marked by numerous outbreaks of xenophobic attacks against foreign migrants and asylum seekers from various conflict zones in Africa. Great Britain. An estimated 3,000 South Africans also joined the Royal Flying Corps. bantus. It caused the consolidation of groups such as the Matebele, the Mfengu and the Makololo. Objectives: Describe the motivations behind British imperialism in Southern Africa. [163][164], South African security forces during the latter part of the apartheid era had a policy of destabilising neighbouring states, supporting opposition movements, conducting sabotage operations and attacking ANC bases and places of refuge for exiles in those states. It marked the beginning of nine years of British intervention in the affairs of the region, which the British named Transorange. After the country's first multiracial democratic elections in 1994, a number of terrorist bomb blasts were linked to the AWB. Waterboer, fearing conflict with the Boer republic of Orange Free State, subsequently asked for and received British protection. [92] Revenue accruing to the Cape Colony from the Kimberley diamond diggings enabled the Cape Colony to be granted responsible government status in 1872, since it was no longer dependent on the British Treasury and hence allowing it to be fully self-governing in similar fashion to the federation of Canada, New Zealand and some of the Australian states. different black tribes in south africa. The South African Institute of Race Relations estimated in 2008 that 800,000 or more white people had emigrated since 1995, out of the approximately 4,000,000 who were in South Africa when apartheid formally ended the year before. Visit the Major Events in World History Study Guide page to learn more. [214] ANC icon Nelson Mandela, asserted in a statement released on 25 January 1990: "The nationalisation of the mines, banks and monopoly industries is the policy of the ANC, and a change or modification of our views in this regard is inconceivable. With 250,000 paid-up members at the height of its existence, it was the largest white protest movement in the country's history. [138] When the war ended, the OB was one of the anti-parliamentary groups absorbed into the National Party.[139][140]. In early South Africa, European notions of national boundaries and land ownership had no counterparts in African political culture. Britain, due to the military burden imposed on it by the Crimean War in Europe, then withdrew its troops from the territory in 1854, when the territory along with other areas in the region was claimed by the Boers as an independent Boer republic, which they named the Orange Free State. who were the first group of people to take over the bantus? One of these colonies was in South Africa. During the early-1990s, Poqo was renamed Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA). Philip's intention was for the Griquas to protect the missionary station there against banditti in the region, and as a bulwark against the northward movement of white settlers from the Cape Colony. Source: World History, Connections to Today, Core Support, Prentice Hall, 2001 (adapted) from the NYS Global History and Geography Regents Exam, January 2006. Cecil Rhodes and Charles Rudd followed, with their Gold Fields of South Africa company. [117], General Louis Botha headed the first government of the new Union, with General Jan Smuts as his deputy. Less than a handful of prosecutions were ever pursued. Cuba had initially provided the MPLA with 230 military advisers prior to the South African intervention. Black people were conscripted or otherwise coerced by both sides into working for them either as combatants or non-combatants to sustain the respective war efforts of both the Boers and the British. [122], Nearly 250,000 South Africans served in the South African military units supporting the Allies during World War I. An important recent find was that of 1.9 million year old Australopithecus sediba, discovered in 2008. By 1987, total military expenditure amounted to about 28% of the national budget. Most of the bodies were dumped in unmarked graves. British policy with regard to South Africa would vacillate with successive governments, but the overarching imperative throughout the 19th century was to protect the strategic trade route to India while incurring as little expense as possible within the colony. The Dutch did not have much influence in the Ivory C… [152] Apartheid South Africa reacted to the UN arms embargo by strengthening its military ties with Israel, and establishing its own arms manufacturing industry with the help of Israel. The weaker and less-skilled Dingaan became king, relaxing military discipline while continuing the despotism. Yet resistance by Boer bittereinders (meaning those who would fight to the bitter end) continued for two more years with guerrilla warfare, which the British met in turn with scorched earth tactics. By 16 December, the fleet had passed the Great Fish River on the east coast of South Africa, where Dias had earlier turned back. Lv 5. It has been described as one of the most important paleontological discoveries in modern times. Eventually, in the 1830s, large numbers of Boers migrated in what came to be known as the Great Trek. [193] The Africanists broke away from the ANC to form the Pan-Africanist Congress and its military wing named Poqo, which became active mainly in the Cape provinces. On 4 November 1977, the Security Council imposed a mandatory arms embargo in terms of Resolution 181 calling upon all States to cease the sale and shipment of arms, ammunition and military vehicles to South Africa. Before the Suez Canal the only way to get from Europe to Asia by sea was by sailing all the way around Africa. The Dutch East India Company established the first colony in 1652. [40] Most historians recognize that the Mfecane wasn't just a series of events caused by the founding of the Zulu kingdom but rather a multitude of factors caused before and after Shaka Zulu came into power. The first was formed by Hermann Eckstein in 1887, eventually becoming Rand Mines. The Dutch presence in the Gold Coast, or other parts of the African coastline where the Dutch ventured, would never be as substantial as it was in Cape Town. The British, who at that time controlled the area between the Orange and Vaal Rivers called the Orange River Sovereignty, decided a discernible boundary was necessary and proclaimed a line named the Warden Line, dividing the area between British and Basotho territories. [208] The migrant labour system was identified as a primary cause of the unrest. Dutch Colonization Of South Africa. [204], The apartheid government had declared a moratorium on foreign debt repayments in the mid-1980s, when it declared a state of emergency in the face of escalating civil unrest. All rights reserved. Chris has a master's degree in history and teaches at the University of Northern Colorado. [38] Among the initial reasons for their leaving the Cape colony were the English language rule. The VOC moved quickly into Asia, dominating trade around Indonesia. [212], The ANC had risen to power on the strength of a socialist agenda embodied in a Freedom Charter, which was intended to form the basis of ANC social, economic and political policies. As a result, they wanted to ensure Britain remained a world power, and felt that the way to do this was to gain colonies, ‘dominating the breadth of the African continent from Egypt to South Africa, as well as Nigeria and the Gold Coast’ . [citation needed] In 1805, the British inherited the Cape as a prize during the Napoleonic Wars,[24] again seizing the Cape from the French controlled Kingdom of Holland which had replaced the Batavian Republic. The Transvaal Boer republic was forcefully annexed by Britain in 1877, during Britain's attempt to consolidate the states of southern Africa under British rule. [168][169] In response to the South African intervention, Cuba sent 18,000 soldiers as part of a large-scale military intervention nicknamed Operation Carlota in support of the MPLA. Thus, the order to set up a permanent settlement was an attempt by the Dutch to exclude the British with whom the Dutch were at war. Rhodes and Rudd had earlier made fortunes from diamond mining at Kimberley. [53] The name Orange Free State was again changed to the Orange River Colony, created by Britain after the latter occupied it in 1900 and then annexed it in 1902 during the Second Boer War. Why did the Britis h colonize Souther n Africa? [79] Faced with starvation, Moshoeshoe signed a peace treaty on 15 October 1858, though crucial boundary issues remained unresolved. From a European perspective the Portuguese discovered what is now South Africa, but did not go as far as colonising it. That isn't much time to set up colonies.On the other hand Britain managed to heavily colonize North America and Australia before this time, and likewise, Spain did South America. [165] These states, forming a regional alliance of southern African states, were named collectively as the Frontline States: Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and, from 1980, Zimbabwe. While groups like the Spanish used imperially sanctioned troops to expand their power, the term ''empire'' is less appropriate for the Dutch. The Zulu resulted in the mass movement of many tribes who in turn to tried dominate those in new territories, leading to widespread warfare and waves of displacement spread throughout southern Africa and beyond. [156] Strict censorship disallowed journalists from reporting, filming or photographing such incidents, while the government ran its own covert disinformation programme that provided distorted accounts of the extrajudicial killings. At the outbreak of World War I, South Africa joined Great Britain and the Allies against the German Empire. In response, the stadtholder, who had taken up residen… [206], A further financial burden was imposed on the new post-apartheid government through its obligation to provide antiretroviral (ARV) treatment to impoverished victims of the HIV/AIDS epidemic sweeping the country. Legacy of colonialism continues to afflict the region, which began in South Africa and the Boers are referred! 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